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15 important information about computer

Computer topics

  1. Transistors - The computer contains millions of transistors, which are used to create machine language using logic gates that turn on and off the circuits.
  2. Machine language - All computers and electronic devices communicate in binary, which is a series of 0's and 1's or Off and On electrical signals. All software written on your computer is created in a high-level programming language that humans can understand. When complete, the program is  compiled into the machine language that computers understand.
  3. ASCII codes - Each binary 0 or 1 is considered a bit and each number, letter, or other character is made up of eight bits (one byte). A common method for storing and editing text is done with ASCII codes, which is one byte of binary. For example, the lowercase letter "a" has a ASCII code decimal value of 97, which is 01100001 in binary.
  4. Motherboard - The Motherboard is the largest circuit board in the computer that holds and connects everything together. Without the motherboard, components like your processor and memory could not communicate with each other.
  5. Computer memory - Not to be confused with disk storage, the computer memory(RAM) is volatile memory and is used to store currently running applications. When the computer is turned off, all data in the memory is lost.
  6. Computer disk storage - A non-volatile type of memory, disk storage like a hard drive is what stores your information even when the computer is turned off. All of your personal files, documents, songs, photos, etc. are stored in disk some form of disk storage.
  7. ROM - Another type of memory, read-only memory (ROM) is a memory chip that has data which can only be read. Most computers today have a programmable read-only memory (PROM), which is still read-only, but can be re-programmed if needed through a firmware update.
  8. Memory capacity - All memory and storage has a total capacity that is written using abbreviations such as KBMBGB, and TB. See the full overview of all computer capacities for a complete understanding of all values.
  9. Processor - The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the component responsible for processing all instructions from software and hardware.
  10. Software and Hardware - Software is instructions and code installed into the computer, like the Internet browser you're using to view this page. Hardware is a physical device you can touch, like the monitor you're using to display this page. See the differences between computer hardware and software for more information.
  11. Input/Output - A computer works with a human by inputting data using an input device such as a keyboard, having the processor process that data, and then displaying the output on an output device such as a monitor. The printer is also another output device and is what allows you to get a hard copy of documents and pictures stored on the computer.
  12. Expansion cards - An expansion card is a card that can be added to the computer to give it additional capabilities. A video cardmodemnetwork card, and sound card are all examples of expansion cards. However, many computers may also have on-board devices, such as a sound card and network card that are built onto the motherboard. For a laptop computer, additional cards are added into the PC Card slot.
  13. Programming - All software running on the computer has been created using a programming language by a computer programmer.
  14. Operating system - Every computer must have an operating system for software to communicate with the hardware. For example, most IBM compatible computers run the Microsoft Windows operating system and have the option to run alternative operating systems, such as a Linux variant. Apple computers only run MacOS.
  15. Network - Computers communicate with other computers over a network using a network interface card (NIC). There are two primary types of networks: a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN). The Internet is also considered a network, which uses the TCP/IP protocol.

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